Rituals of Spirited Rebellion

Flipping through the February 2019 edition of National Geographic magazine, was delighted to come across the article “Rituals of Spirited Rebellion” by Jacqueline Charles, about Carnival celebrations in the Caribbean and Latin America. Along with Yule and Halloween, Carnival is one of the primary times of the year when you will find mumming customs in a wide variety of locations. In Haiti, Brazil, and other places, these rites also speak deeply of cultural resistance against slavery and oppression.


The photographs are by the wonderful Charles Freger who has already documented European and Japanese mummers, among others, in his many books.

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